James (Jeb) Byers
Odum School of Ecology
University of Georgia
140 E. Green St.
Athens, GA 30602
Our lab's work on crab and oyster
reef ecology was recently featured on Georgia
Outdoors (our portion starts at minute 8:30)
Photo Credit: Paul Gribben
Marine community and population ecology;
Biological invasions; Conservation biology
have broad ecological research interests that involve the study
of species interactions in nearshore, estuarine, and marsh environments.
The majority of my research focuses on quantitatively measuring
impacts of non-indigenous species on native biota in invaded
marine communities. Interactions with non-native species are
the second leading cause of endangerment and extinction of native
species. Therefore I have sought to develop and implement new
quantitative tools that 1) aid our understanding of how and when
invading species will impact native systems and 2) help increase
our ability to predict outcomes of future invasions.
Some of my additional projects and interests
include the study of:
- Effects of parasites on communities and species
- Physical-biological coupling in estuaries
- Habitat modifying species and other ecosystem
- Design and function of marine reserves
- Development of biological indicators for
detection of environmental perturbations
- Biogeographic patterns in species' ranges
I approach all of my projects with experimental
manipulations and modeling, and in general, I am a strong proponent
of incorporating quantitative approaches in ecological studies
whenever possible. In many of my field experiments I have utilized
molluscs as study organisms, because this phylum is well suited
to experimental manipulation and typically associated with a
wide range of digenetic parasites.
My interests in ecology extend beyond those in which
I am currently involved. I welcome graduate students with a strong
work ethic who are eager to address ecological questions with
quantitative rigor and innovation. I push students into developing
strong, independent, creative ideas and I stress the importance
of placing research into a broad context that is relevant to
important ecological and conservation questions.
Adjunct and Previous Affiliations:
Affiliate Faculty, University of New
Adjunct Faculty, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography
Visiting Fellow (2007-08), University of Wollongong and University
of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Post-doctoral Fellow, Friday Harbor Laboratories, University
Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara
- Byers, J. E. 1999. The distribution of an
introduced mollusc and its role in the long-term demise of a
native confamilial species. Biological Invasions 1(4):
- Parker, I., D. Simberloff, M. Lonsdale, K.
Goodell, M. Wonham, P. Kareiva, M. Williamson, B. Von Holle,
P. Moyle, J. E. Byers, L. Goldwasser. 1999. Impact: toward
a framework for understanding the ecological effects of invaders.
Biological Invasions 1(1): 3-19 pdf
- Byers, J. E. 2000. Competition between two
estuarine snails: implications for invasions of exotic species.
Ecology 81(5): 1225-1239 pdf
- Byers, J. E. 2000. Effects of body size and
resource availability on dispersal in a native and a non-native
estuarine snail. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and
Ecology 248(2): 133-150 pdf
- Byers, J. E. 2000. Differential susceptibility
to hypoxia aids estuarine invasion. Marine Ecology Progress
Series 203: 123-132 pdf
- Byers, J. E. and L. Goldwasser. 2001. Exposing
the mechanism and timing of impact of non-indigenous species
on native species. Ecology 82(5): 1330-1343 pdf
- Lenihan, H. S., C. H. Peterson, J. E. Byers,
J. H. Grabowski, and G. Thayer. 2001. Cascading of habitat degradation:
oyster reefs invaded by refugee fishes escaping stress. Ecological
Applications 11(3): 764-782 pdf
- Byers, J. E. 2002. Physical habitat attribute
mediates biotic resistance to non-indigenous species invasion.
Oecologia 130(1): 146-156 pdf
- Byers, J. E., S. Reichard, J. Randall, I.
Parker, et al. 2002. Directing research to reduce the impacts
of nonindigenous species. Conservation Biology 16(3):
- Byers, J. E., 2002. Impact of non-indigenous
species enhanced by anthropogenic alteration of selection regimes.
Oikos 97(3): 449-458 pdf
- Byers, J. E. and E. Noonburg 2003. Scale
dependent effects of biotic resistance to biological invasion.
Ecology 84(6): 1428-1433 pdf
- Meyer, J. and J. E. Byers 2005. As good as
dead? Sublethal predation faciliates lethal predation on an intertidal
clam. Ecology Letters 8(2): 160-166 pdf
- Byers, J. E. 2005. Marine reserves enhance abundance
but not competitive impacts of a harvested nonindigneous species.
Ecology 86(2): 487-500 pdf
- Noonburg, E. G. and J. E. Byers 2005. More
harm than good: when invader vulnerability to predators enhances
impact on native species. Ecology 86(10): 2555-2560 pdf
- Torchin, M., J. E. Byers, and T. Huspeni.
2005. Differential parasitism of native and introduced snails:
replacement of a parasite fauna. Biological Invasions 7(6):
- Byers, J. E. 2005. Quantifying geographical
variation in physiological performance to address the absence
of invading species. Ecoscience 12(3): 358-365; [Special
volume: Spatial and temporal dynamics of biological invasions]
- Reusink, J., H. Lenihan, A. Trimble, K. Heiman,
F. Micheli, J. E. Byers, and M. Kay. 2005. Introduction
of non-native oysters: ecosystem effects and restoration implications.
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36:
- Griffen, B. D. and J. E. Byers. 2006. Partitioning
mechanisms of predator interference in different habitats. Oecologia
146(4): 608-614. pdf
- Byers, J. E. and J.M. Pringle. 2006. Going
against the flow: retention, range limits and invasions in advective
environments. Marine Ecology Progress Series 313: 27-41.
- Griffen, B. D. and J. E. Byers. 2006. Intraguild
predation reduces redundancy of predator species in multiple
predator assemblage. Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 959-966.
- Freeman, A. and J. E. Byers. 2006. Divergent
induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.
Science 313 (5788): 831-833. pdf
- [Article summarized in Science for
"News of the Week, Evolution" pdf;
- Audio Archive of story
on National Public Radio]
- Byers, J. E., K. Cuddington, C.G. Jones,
T.S. Talley, A. Hastings, J.G. Lambrinos, J.A. Crooks, W. Wilson.
2006. Using ecosystem engineers to restore ecological systems.
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21(9): 493-500. pdf
- Griffiths, J., M. Dethier, A. Newsom, J.
E. Byers, J. Meyer, F. Oyarzun, and H. Lenihan. 2006. Invertebrate
community responses to recreational clam digging. Marine Biology
149(6): 1489-1497. pdf
- Hastings, A., J. E. Byers, J.A. Crooks, K.
Cuddington, C.G. Jones, J.G. Lambrinos, T.S. Talley, W. Wilson.
2007. Ecosystem engineering in space and time. Ecology Letters
10(2): 153-164. pdf
- Tyrell, M. C. and J. E. Byers. 2007. Do artificial
substrates favor nonindigenous fouling species over natives?
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342:
- Wood, C. L.*, J. E. Byers, K. Cottingham,
I. Altman, M. Donahue, and A. Blakeslee. 2007. Parasites alter
community structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 104(22): 9335-9339. pdf
[*winner of ESA's Outstanding Undergraduate Student Research
- Byers, J. E. and E. G. Noonburg. 2007. Poaching,
enforcement, and the efficacy of marine reserves. Ecological
Applications 17(7): 1851-1856. pdf
- Byers, J. E. 2007. Lessons from disparate
ecosystem engineers. In: Ecosystem engineering: plants to
protists. Eds.: K. Cuddington, J. E. Byers, W. Wilson &
A. Hastings. Academic Press. pdf
- Byers, J. E., A. Blakeslee, E. Linder, A.
Cooper, and T. Maguire. 2008. Controls of spatial variation in
the prevalence of trematode parasites infecting a marine snail.
Ecology 89(2): 439-451. pdf
(or for low resolution version click here: pdf)
- Blakeslee, A. and J. E. Byers. 2008. Using
parasites to inform ecological history: comparisons among three
congeneric marine snails. Ecology 89(4):1068-1078. pdf
- Byers, J. E. and J. M. Pringle. 2008. Going
against the flow: how invasions spread and persist in the face
of advection. [Extended Abstract]. ICES Journal of Marine
Science 65: 723-724. pdf
- Hellmann, J.J., J. E. Byers, B.G. Bierwagen,
and J.S. Dukes. 2008. Five potential consequences of climate
change for invasive species. Conservation Biology 22(3):
- Blakeslee, A., J. E. Byers, M.P. Lesser.
2008. Solving cryptogenic histories using host and parasite molecular
genetics: the resolution of Littorina littorea's North
American origin. Molecular Ecology 17(16): 3684-3696.
- Byers, J. E. 2009. Competition in Marine
Invasions. In: Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems,
Ecological Studies 204, Eds. Gil Rilov & Jeff Crooks. Springer-Verlag.
pps. 245-260. pdf
- Griffen, B. D. and J. E. Byers. 2009. Community
impacts of two invasive crabs: the interactive roles of density,
prey recruitment, and indirect effects. Biological Invasions
11(4): 927-940. pdf
- Byers, J. E. 2009. Including parasites in
food webs. Trends in Parasitology 25(2): 55-57. pdf
- Byers, J. E. 2009. Invasive animals in marshes:
biological agents of change. In: Human impacts on salt marshes:
A global perspective, Eds.: Brian Silliman, Edwin Grosholz
& Mark Bertness. University of California Press. pp. 41-56.
- Freeman, A., J. Meszaros, and J. E. Byers.
2009. Poor phenotypic integration of blue mussel inducible defenses
in environments with multiple predators. Oikos 118: 758-766.
- Brawley, S. H., J.A. Coyer, A.M.H. Blakeslee,
G. Hoarau, L.E. Johnson, J. E. Byers, W.T. Stam and J.L. Olsen.
2009. Historical invasions of the intertidal zone of Atlantic
North America associated with distinctive patterns of trade and
emigration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
106(20): 8239-8244. pdf
- Gribben, P. E., J. E. Byers, M. Clements,
L. A. McKenzie, P. D. Steinberg, and J. T. Wright. 2009. Behavioural
interactions between ecosystems engineers control community species
richness. Ecology Letters 12(11): 1127-1136. pdf
- Blakeslee, A.M.H., C.L. Keogh, J. E. Byers,
A. M. Kuris, K. D. Lafferty, and M. E. Torchin. 2009. Differential
escape from parasites by two competing introduced crabs. Marine
Ecology Progress Series 393: 83-96. pdf
- Byers, J. E., P.E. Gribben, and J.T Wright.
2010. Variable direct and indirect effects of a habitat-modifying
invasive species on mortality of native fauna. Ecology
91(6): 1787-1798. pdf
- Wright, J.T., J. E. Byers, L.P. Koukoumaftsis,
P.J. Ralph, and P.E. Gribben. 2010. Native species behavior mitigates
the impact of habitat-forming invasive seaweed. Oecologia
163(2): 527-534. pdf
- Jones, C.G., J. L. Gutiérrez, J. E.
Byers, J.A. Crooks, J.G. Lambrinos, and T.S. Talley. 2010. A
framework for understating physical ecosystem engineering by
organisms. Oikos 119: 1862-1869. pdf
- Blakeslee, A.M.H., C.H. McKenzie, J. Darling,
J. E. Byers, J.M. Pringle, and J. Roman. 2010. A hitchhiker's
guide to the Maritimes: anthropogenic transport facilitates long-distance
dispersal of an invasive marine crab to Newfoundland. Diversity
and Distributions 16(6): 879-891. pdf
- Gutiérrez, J. L., C. G. Jones, J.
E. Byers, K. K. Arkema, K. Berkenbusch, J. A. Commito, C. M.
Duarte, S. D. Hacker, I. E. Hendriks, P. J. Hogarth, J. G. Lambrinos,
M. G. Palomo, C. Wild. 2011. Physical ecosystem engineers
and the functioning of estuaries and coasts. Chapter 5, in
Vol. 7: Functioning of Estuaries and Coastal Ecosystems.
Eds.: C. H. R. Heip, C. J. M., Philippart, & J. J. Middelburg.
In the Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science (Series Eds.,
E. Wolanski, & D. McLusky), Elsevier. pdf
(or for low resolution version click here: pdf)
- Byers, J. E., I. Altman, A. Grosse, T. Huspeni,
and J.C. Maerz. 2011. Using parasitic trematode larvae to quantify
an elusive vertebrate host. Conservation Biology 25(1):
- Meyer, J. J. and J. E. Byers. 2011. Human-driven
spatial and temporal shift in trophodynamics in the Gulf of Maine,
USA. Marine Biology 158(3): 631-638. pdf
- Altman, I., A. M. H. Blakeslee, G. C. Osio,
C. Rillahan, S. J. Teck, J. J. Meyer, J. E. Byers, and A. A.
Rosenberg. 2011. A practical approach to implementation of ecosystem-based
management: a case study using the Gulf of Maine marine ecosystem.
Frontiers in Ecology & the Environment 9(3): 183-189.
- Pringle, J.M., A.M.H. Blakeslee, J. E. Byers,
and J. Roman. 2011. Asymmetric dispersal allows an upstream region
to control population structure throughout a species' range.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(37):
- Canning-Clode, J., A.E. Fowler, J. E. Byers,
J.T. Carlton, and G.M. Ruiz. 2011. 'Caribbean Creep' chills out:
climate change and marine invasive species. PLoS ONE 6(12):
- Wright, J.T., J. E. Byers, L.P. Koukoumaftsis,
and P.E. Gribben. 2012. Differences in anti-predator traits of
a native bivalve following invasion by a habitat-forming seaweed.
Marine & Freshwater Research 63: 246-250. pdf
- Blakeslee, A.M.H., I. Altman, A.W. Miller,
J. E. Byers, C.E. Hamer and G.M. Ruiz. 2012. Parasites and invasions:
a biogeographic examination of parasites and hosts in native
and introduced ranges. J. of Biogeography 39: 609-622.
- Wright, J.T., P.E. Gribben, J. E. Byers,
K. Monro. 2012. Invasive ecosystem engineer selects for different
phenotypes of an associated native species. Ecology 93(6):
- Bishop, M. J., J. E. Byers, B.J. Marcek,
and P.E. Gribben. 2012. Density-dependent facilitation cascades
determine epifaunal community structure in temperate Australian
mangroves. Ecology 93(6): 1388-1401. pdf
- Byers, J. E., P.E. Gribben, C. Yeager, and
E. Sotka. 2012. Impacts of an abundant invasive ecosystem engineer
within mudflats of the southeastern US coast. Biological Invasions
14: 2587-2600. pdf
- Dunn, A.M., M.E. Torchin, M.J. Hatcher, P.M.
Kotanen , D.M. Blumenthal, J.E. Byers, C.A.C. Coon, V.M. Frankel,
R.D. Holt, R.A. Hufbauer, A.R. Kanarek, K.A. Schierenbeck, L.M.
Wolfe, and S.E. Perkins. 2012. Indirect effects of parasites
in invasions. Functional Ecology 26: 1262-1274. pdf
- Burfeind, D.D., K.A. Pitt, R.M. Connolly,
and J. E. Byers. 2013. Performance of non-native species within
marine reserves. Biological Invasions 15: 17-28. pdf
- Byers, J. E., W.G. McDowell, S. Robertson,
R. Haynie, L.M. Pintor, & S.B. Wilde. 2013. Climate and pH
predict the potential range of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea
insularum) in the southeastern United States. PLoS ONE
8(2): e56812. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056812 pdf
- Gribben, P.E. , J. E. Byers, J.T. Wright
and T.M. Glasby. 2013. Positive versus negative effects of an
invasive ecosystem engineer on different components of a marine
ecosystem. Oikos. 122: 816824. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.20868.x
- Parker, J. D., M.E. Torchin, R.A. Hufbauer,
N.P. Lemoine, C. Alba, D.M. Blumenthal, O. Bossdorf, J. E. Byers,
A.M. Dunn, R.W. Heckman, M. Hejda, V. Jaroík, A.R.
Kanarek, L.B. Martin, S.E. Perkins, P. Pyek, K. Schierenbeck,
C. Schlöder, R. van Klinken, K.J. Vaughn, W. Williams, L.M.
Wolfe. 2013. Do invasive species perform better in their new
ranges? Ecology 94(5): 985994. pdf
- Wonham, M., J. E. Byers, E.D. Grosholz, &
B. Leung. 2013. Modeling the relationship between invasion risk
and propagule pressure to inform invasion-management policy.
Ecological Applications 23(7): 1691-1706. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-1985.1
- Altman, S., J. Robinson, J. M. Pringle, J.
E. Byers, & J. P. Wares. 2013. Edges and overlaps in North
Atlantic phylogeography. Diversity 5, 263-275; doi:10.3390/d5020263
(Special volume: Biogeography and Biodiversity Conservation).
- Colautti, R. I., S.J. Franks, R.A. Hufbauer,
P.M. Kotanen, M.E. Torchin, J.E. Byers, P. Pyek, O. Bossdorf.
2014. The global garlic mustard field survey (GGMFS): challenges
and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for
invasion biology. Neobiota 21: 29-47. pdf
- Byers, J. E. and J.H. Grabowski. 2014. Soft-sediment
communities. In: Marine Community Ecology. Eds.: Mark
Bertness, Brian Silliman, Jay Stachowicz & John Bruno. Sinauer.
- Byers, J. E., T. L. Rogers, J. H. Grabowski,
A.R. Hughes, M. F. Piehler, & D. L. Kimbro. 2014. Host and
parasite recruitment correlated at a biogeographic scale. Oecologia
174: 731-738. pdf
- Thomsen, M. S., J. E. Byers, D. R. Schiel,
J. F. Bruno, J. D. Olden, T. Wernberg, & B. R. Silliman.
2014. Impacts of marine invaders on biodiversity depend on trophic
position and functional similarity. Marine Ecology Progress
Series 495: 39-47. pdf
- Pringle, J. M., J. E. Byers, P. Pappalardo,
J.P. Wares & D. Marshall. 2014. Circulation constrains the
evolution of larval development modes and life histories in the
coastal ocean. Ecology 95: 1022-1032. pdf
- Altman, I. and J. E. Byers. 2014. Large scale
spatial variation in parasite communities influenced by anthropogenic
factors. Ecology 95(7): 1876-1887. pdf
- McDowell, W.G., A. J. Benson, & J. E.
Byers. 2014. Climate controls the distribution of an abundant
invasive species: implications for future range expansion. Freshwater
Biology 59: 847-857. pdf
- Thomsen, M. S., T. Wernberg, J. D. Olden,
J. E. Byers, J. F. Bruno, B. R. Silliman, & D. R. Schiel.
2014. Forty years of experiments on invasive species: are biases
limiting our understanding of impacts? Neobiota 22: 1-22.
doi: 10.3897/neobiota.22.6224. pdf
- Byers, J. E., R. S. Smith, H. W. Weiksel,
& C. Y. Robertson. 2014. A non-native prey mediates the effects
of a shared predator on an ecosystem service. PLoS One
9(4): e93969. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093969. pdf
- Kimbro, D. L., J. E. Byers, J. H. Grabowski,
A.R. Hughes, & M. F. Piehler. 2014. The biogeography of trophic
cascades on U.S. oyster reefs. Ecology Letters 17(7):
- Wright, J. T., J. E. Byers, J. L. DeVore,
& E. E. Sotka. 2014. Engineering or food? Mechanisms of facilitation
by a habitat-forming invasive seaweed. Ecology 95(10):
- Pappalardo, P., J. M. Pringle, J. P. Wares,
& J. E. Byers. (in press, 2015). The location, strength,
and mechanisms behind marine biogeographic boundaries of the
east coast of North America. Ecography 38. doi: 10.1111/ecog.01135
- Byers, J. E., J. H. Grabowski, M. F. Piehler,
A. R. Hughes, H. W. Weiskel, J. C. Malek, & D. L. Kimbro.
(in press¸ 2015). Geographic variation in intertidal
oyster reef properties and the influence of tidal prism. Limnology
& Oceanography. pdf
- Byers, J. E., A. J. Malek, L. E. Quevillon,
I. Altman, & C.L. Keogh. (in press, 2015). Opposing
selective pressures decouple pattern and process of parasitic
infection over small spatial scale. Oikos. 10.1111/oik.02088
- Pintor, L. M. and J. E. Byers. (in press,
2015). Individual trait variation in a native predator affects
its consumption of a novel, non-native prey. Behavioral Ecology.
- Bishop, M. J. and J. E. Byers. (in press,
2015). Predation risk predicts use of a novel habitat. Oikos.
doi: 10.1111/oik.01967 pdf
K. Cuddington, J. E. Byers, W. Wilson and A. Hastings, editors.
2007. Ecosystem engineering: plants to protists. Academic
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